Spanish Military Sources Confirm Chilean FAE Test PY2310022890 Madrid EFE in Spanish 1938 GMT 22 Oct 90
[Text] Madrid, 22 October (EFE)—Spanish military sources today confirmed to EFE that a Fuel Air Explo- sive (FAE) bomb, which was manufactured by a Spanish enterprise, was tested in Chile. This bomb is highly destructive and is, therefore, called the "mininuclear bomb."
The sources added that the tests were carried out on unspecified dates by C-101 aircraft sold to the Chilean Air Force by the Spanish enterprise Aeronautics Con- structions [Construcciones Aeronauticas].
Another Spanish enterprise, Alaveses Explosives, Inc. (Expal), manufactures the FAE according to a secret contract signed with the Spanish Defense Ministry seven years ago.
The FAE is made with ethylene oxide and has a destruc- tive power similar to that of a small nuclear bomb; its shock wave can penetrate areas protected from conven- tional explosives.
At the beginning of last month, an Israeli radio station reported that Spain was one of countries that had the FAE, in addition to Iraq, Israel, and the United States.
The Spanish Defense Ministry declined to comment on this report, because "armament issues are secret," the spokesman said.
However, the Spanish weekly TIEMPO reported this week that the Spanish bomb had reached Iraq through Chilean arms smuggler Carlos Cardoen.
According to TIEMPO, the operation consisted of selling Cardoen the necessary technology to make the bomb, but Cardoen later sent it to Libya and, from there, to Iraq.
Through his official spokesman Ismael Vicuna, manager general of Cardoen Industries, Cardoen told TIEMPO that together with a Spanish enterprise, he is investi- gating the possibility of developing and producing the FAE bomb in Chile.
According to Vicuna, the explosions recorded last August in the Chilean desert of Atacama, some 800 km north of Santiago, were the result of tests carried out to compare the FAE's pressure curve with that of other bombs." [no opening quotation mark as received]
'Spanish Job' 91P20017A Madrid TIEMPO in Spanish 22 Oct 90 pp 98-104
[Article by Felix Garcia Perez: "The Spanish Bomb in the Hands of Iraq"—first paragraph is TIEMPO intro- duction]
[Text] Engineers from the Spanish company M.S. System and from the Chilean company Incar [Industrias Cardoen] tested six FAE [Fuel Air Explosive] bombs in the Chilean Atacama Desert in order to perfect the technology for the bomb, which would then be trans- ferred to the army of Saddam Husayn with the help of Libya. These tests took place during the latter part of August, following the invasion of Kuwait. Among arms traffickers, this operation is already known as the "Span- ish Job."
M.S. System and Incar have for some time collaborated closely on the development, manufacture and sale of weapons on the international market. According to what this magazine has been able to find out, the Spanish company manages the technical aspects, while the Chilean partner, with factories in Cantabria and.in Iraq, is in charge of production and distribution.
The weapon which these two companies have perfected and placed in the hands of Saddam Husayn, thus breaching the international blockade with the help of the Libyan Government, is known in Spanish as the BEAC (Bomba Explosiva de Aire Combustible) and in English as the FAE (Fuel Air Explosive) bomb. It has a destruc- tive force similar to that of short-range tactical nuclear weapons.
Spain has done research on the FAE project since 1983 when it first appeared in the General State Budget. The well-known disarmament expert, Vicenc Fisas, mentions it in his book La Militarizäcion de la Ciencia ["The Militarization of Science"] filed under number 00037 at the General Headquarters for Weapons and Materiel. Although this project is classified secret, the fact that it was mentioned in the media last week led Minister of Defense Narcis Serra to refer to it and announce that the Defense Ministry will soon make public those aspects of the issue which are deemed appropriate.
The key man in this Madrid-Chile-Libya-Iraq connec- tion is the well-known arms trafficker, Carlos Cardoen, an engineer, businessman, and owner of Incar. His international contacts enable him to trade in this type of weapons, which the Spanish company develops. A pro- tege of General Augusto Pinochet since 1980, he has accumulated an enormous fortune selling air-launched bombs to Iraq, which, according to Chilean sources, can sell for as much as 40 billion pesetas. His speciality is cluster bombs, of which he now controls half of the world's production.
Carlos Cardoen has owned the Spanish metallurgical factory, Industrias Metalurgicas Estrategicas Canta- bricas de Santander (IMECSA), located in Pontejo since 1988. This modern industrial plant manufactures cluster bomb parts for Iraq. At one time an attempt was made to assemble helicopters there, but the project never got off the ground.
Cardoen built two weaponry factories on the outskirts of Baghdad; one for the manufacture of air-launched bombs and another for fuses. The technology used for the latter was acquired primarily from the South African companies Reutech and Puchs, which sold licences to Cardoen, the trafficker. It was with this technology that he set up the plant in Iraq, which was almost completed when the invasion of Kuwait occurred. The factory has more than 300 high-precision machines procured from the Matrix Churchill, Battanfeld, and Anglo-South African ERG firms.
Carlos Cardoen's contacts in other countries, including Spain, are not often made through the Chilean firm Incar, but, instead, through another intermediary known as Swisstoc, headed up by Augusto Giangrandi, who is also vice president of Incar.
Sources from the Spanish secret services have assured TIEMPO that they have watched Cardoen's every move and that his activities in Spain are controlled. However, as in the case of other well-known arms traffickers, they are allowed to operate, while under surveillance, in exchange for information and favors.
The deaths of two British reporters who tried to expose Cardoen illustrate just how dangerous it can be to delve into the activities of this protege of Pinochet. On 15 March a 31-year old British reporter, Farzad Bazoft, was accused of spying and hanged in a Baghdad jail. Barzoft, who was visiting Iraq in September 1989, had reported that a missile factory had exploded near Baghdad and that 500 people had died in the catastrophe. At the time, 21 Chilean engineers sent by the businessman Carlos Cardoen were working in the factory.
British reporter Jonathan Moyle went to Chile following Barzoft's leads, and barely 15 days after the execution of his colegue, Moyle was found hanged in the closet of his room in the Carrera Hotel in Santiago, Chile.
Carlos Cardoen's representative in Spain, who served as a point of contact between the Chilean trafficker and the Spanish firm M.S. System, is Jorge Valdivieso, a Peru- vian national who lives in Madrid, travels with a U.S. passport, and works for Incar.
During the latter part of August, an M.S. System delega- tion comprising five Spanish technicians and headed by Jose Allepuz, arrived in Chile. The group left Santiago for the northern city of Iquique where they stayed in the
Churmatan Hotel. During the next few days, a motor- cade travelled from the city to the Incar bomb factories at Alto Hospicio. From there, they would travel several kilometers into the Atacama Desert, the hottest and most barren in the world, until they reached a plain similar to a lunar landscape.
Every day they would follow the same routine; slow preparations for a series of static explosions, in other words, the FAE bombs were placed on the ground and activated by remote control. This weapon is based on the mixture of the gas in the bomb with oxygen from the surrounding air and the result is a powerful Shockwave which destroys everything within its reach.
Once in the desert, the Spanish and Chilean technicians assembled the military device. The FAE bomb appears innocuous. It consists of a yellow cylinder, approxi- mately one meter in length, which is loaded with gas and sub-munitions. In describing the process in graphic detail, an observer said, "it was like loading disposable gas lighters."
According to this source, the explosions that were wit- nessed were devastating, and the observers, under shelter more than a kilometer away from the bomb, felt the ground shake all around them.
The first FAE bomb prototypes were developed by the United States and used during the Vietnam war. Unlike other conventional bombs, the FAE bomb utilizes oxygen from the air to cause its explosion. While 40 percent of the weight of conventional bombs is made up of oxygen, the FAE bomb utilizes this «pace for other highly destructive materials. This bomb is so dangerous because it produces a huge, expanding Shockwave, the result of the tremendous pressure produced by the release of gas during the explosion.
The main reason why the United States decided to use FAE bombs in Vietnam was due to its ability to destroy shelters. The freed gas expands at ground level, leaving no trench or bunker untouched by the Shockwave which occurs less than a second later. People are annihilated for hundreds of meters in the surrounding area; vehicles, airplanes, and other war materiel are destroyed, while the shaking explodes any underground mines that might have been placed in its radius of action.
An American expert familiar with these bombs affirms that the expansive Shockwave "does not spare even a root in an area about the size of a stadium." In an open space like a desert, the effects of the FAE bomb are even more terrible. Israeli sources say that Saddam Husayn's "stone" missile could carry a FAE bomb 2,000 kilome- ters.
During the 12 days which the Spanish and Chilean engineers spent in the Atacama Desert, there was a total of six test explosions. The last day the Spanish firm M.S.
14 LATIN AMERICA
JPRS-TAC-90-031 14 November 1990
System invited all those who had participated in the project to a delicious codfish meal.
The bombs, which vere developed and tested by M.S. System and Incar, were to go to the Libyan Government of M'uammar al-Qadhdhafi, and, according to foreign intelligence services which were following the trail of the "Spanish Job," the original plan of the Libyan leader was to deliver the bombs to Baghdad by way of Paris. Two Incar executives were to travel to Paris to meet with two Libyan representatives, Dr. Dokali Megharief and El Aref M. Tawil of the General Arab African Company, headquartered in Tripoli. These two men were to trans- port the FAE's to Baghdad. This is not the first time that Spanish weaponry arrives in Iraq by way of an interna- tional trafficking network. Chemical weapons manufac- tured by Explosivos Alaveses (EXPAL) were used by Saddam Husayn to annihilate the Kurds, many of whom recovered from their burns at the Gomez Ulla Hospital in Madrid. At that time, in contrast to what has occurred this time, the international network which allowed Spanish weaponry to reach Iraq was not discovered.
Spain is not cut off from these dynamics, nor exempt from the responsibilities stemming from the current situation. Over the past 10 years Spanish firms have sold war materiel to Iraq worth 32 billion pesetas, and 300 billion pesetas' worth to the entire Middle East. The embargo on some of these countries has been systemat- ically ignored, and in spite of accusations and warnings, they have been provided vith the technology for the development of long-range missiles and nuclear and chemical weapons.
It is urgent, therefore, that we think seriously about all the consequences deriving from an arms export policy. The Gulf crisis offers an excellent opportunity to begin a process of strict control over these exports, which inev- itably must entail a reduction and reconversion of the arms industry, aimed at making it less dependent on exports. Even the European Parliament has recently approved some directives on the subject. But until there is a sense of regret for what has happened, there will be no resolve to do better. We will all pay dearly for the irresponsibility, thoughtlessness, and blindness of some.
Embargo Violations 91P20017B Madrid TIEMPO in Spanish 22Oct90p 102
[Article by Vicenc Fisas Armengol, member of the CIP [expansion unknown] and disarmament researcher at the UNESCO Center in Catalonia: "Spanish Technology to Iraq"]
[Text] One of the clearest lessons of the current Gulf conflict has been with regard to the risks involved in the wholesale export of weaponry. The great world powers have, for some time, used the export of weaponry as one of the preferred ways to increase their influence in certain areas of the planet, while, at the same time, generating substantial revenues for a reduced number of firms. For less pretentious countries like Spain, the export of weaponry has been viewed exclusively in terms of trade benefits and making investments profitable.
What is certain, in one case as much as in the other, is that the sale of war materiel contributes decisively to rearmament or the militarization of many countries, without any guarantee that the countries buying this flow of weapons will become permanent allies. Today's ally can be tomorrow's adversary, and the history of the past two hundred years is full of examples of this.
The terrible thing about this is that nothing was learned from the wholesale export of weapons to Iran during the 1970's, and, in spite of the very high human, political, and economic costs which we are now paying, there seems to be no regret about the attitude toward Iraq. Moreover, the offer to sell more war materiel to Saudi Arabia, worth 20 billion dollars, is visible proof that we are doing everything possible to ensure that what we lament today will repeat itself in the future.
Peruvian Government Concerned About Chilean FAE Bomb PY2710123290 Lima LA REPUBLICA in Spanish 23 Oct 90 p 13
[Excerpts] The Peruvian Government is seriously studying the ramifications of the fuel-air explosive bomb (FAE). The production of this bomb by a Chilean private company has awakened concern throughout the conti- nent.
It has been explained that this bomb is as powerful as a tactical nuclear device.
Peruvian Foreign Ministry and Armed Forces experts and their advisers from the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy are preparing a study on the characteristics of the new bomb and the consequences of its use.
Peruvian Government sources have indicated that the study will probably be ready in two weeks.
The sources added that the production of this bomb, even by a private company "introduces an element of confusion and distrust into the atmosphere of under- standing achieved between Peru and Chile," according to a reliable Peruvian Foreign Ministry source, [passage omitted] Peruvian nuclear physicist Modesto Montoya has confirmed that Chile cannot manufacture a nuclear bomb, but it can produce one whose basic component is ethylene oxide, a gas that evaporates at 12 degrees centigrade and is usually used as a fungicide to preserve food.
He said that the Chilean bomb is not based on this principle, but that ethylene oxide has other properties. It reacts with other substances and becomes "ethylene glycol," which is highly explosive.
JPRS-TAC-90-031 14 November 1990 LATIN AMERICA 15
Montoya explained that the FAE is five times more powerful than any other conventional weapon, and its shock wave expands very swiftly in a large radius.
It may reach a temperature of 200 or 300 degrees centigrade, enough to kill living organisms while build- ings are left standing, [passage omitted]
Felipe Osterling, chairman of the Senate Defense Com- mittee, voiced his concern over the reports that Chile may have a bomb similar to a tactical nuclear device.
Osterling said that it would be very unfortunate if this were the case at the very time when the countries of the region are making an effort to use their resources to resolve problems.
poliorcetes escribió:¿Se integró alguna vez de forma oficial en nuestros arsenales?
poliorcetes escribió:¿Se integró alguna vez de forma oficial en nuestros arsenales?
charoska escribió:Cuartel General tienen los generales
De capitán a coronel se tiene una Plana Mayar
Los tenientes ni eso
Dentro de la tripulación del BMR de mando de Sc hay un rifle Accuracy y un Alcotán, pero cada arma tiene dos personas de dotación
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